By looking through and digging into the content that Google has already told you they like the best you will know exactly how to rank that page.
You know the topics that need to be covered, you can find out the minimum number of words and the maximum number of words for pages that are ranking and know that your content must be at least as long as the mean average.
You know the number of headings and the header tags that are used. You will know the keywords that appear in the content and be able to calculate how frequently those keywords need to appear.
You will also be able to look at the link building tactics and backlink profile of those sites performing well in the search rankings and from analyzing that data you will understand what your goals need to be for your own back linking strategy.
He will be looking at both the quantity of backlinks pointing at the pages that rank, but you will also need to look at the quality of the websites upon which those backlinks are placed. Quality links and authority links that provide a relevant link, will maximize the return on your link building efforts.
As with all competitive analysis you are looking for patterns and any data that can help you prepare both your overall SEO strategy and your backlink plan the piece of content that you are trying to rank.